According to the Commercial Companies Law No 11 of 2015, the following corporate structures are permitted:
• Limited liability companies (LLCs) – subject to the Foreign Investment Law can now be established by a single person owning the entire share capital (previously the minimum number of shareholders was two). This replaces the single person company under the old companies law. Shareholders can determine the share capital of an LLC (previously the minimum share capital was QAR200,000 divided into equal shares).
• Article 207 company – a shareholding company where the Qatari government, a government owned entity or a public corporation must own 51% of the shares, unless the Council of Ministers consents otherwise. Certain provisions of the Commercial Companies Law are excluded from the company’s Articles of Association.
• General partnership – joint partners administer the affairs of the company, and trustee partners contribute to the company’s capital.
• Simple limited partnership – a local entity formed by two or more Qataris.
• Limited partnership with shares – formed by joint partners, liable for the debts, or trustee partners, whose liability is limited to the share value.
• Unincorporated joint venture – formed by two or more people pursuant to specific contractual arrangements. The unincorporated joint venture does not have a separate legal personality distinct from its partners’.
• Joint stock company (public or private) – the capital is divided into shares with a minimum of five shareholders. Permissible foreign share ownership depends on the type of company and is subject to Qatar Financial Markets Authority approval.
• Holding company – incorporated as a joint stock or limited liability company. The holding company must hold at least 51% of the shares in each of the companies under its control.